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中国出台司法解释划定网络言行法律边界

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年10月23日 04:26:50
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(  新)(华)(网)(北)(京)(9月)(9日)(电)((记)(者)(华)(春)(雨)(、杨)(维)(汉)(、陈)(菲)()最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(、最)(高)(人)(民)(检)(察)(院)(9日)(召)(开)(新)(闻)(发)(布)(会)(公)(布)(关)(于)(办)(理)(利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(实)(施)(诽)(谤)(等)(刑)(事)(案)(件)(的)(司)(法)(解)(释)(,为)(网)(络)(言)(行)(划)(定)(法)(律)(边)(界)(。  该)(司)(法)(解)(释)(共)(10条)(,对)(利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(“捏)(造)(事)(实)(诽)(谤)(他)(人)(”及)(实)(施)(诽)(谤)(行)(为)(“情)(节)(严)(重)(”的)(认)(定)(,利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(实)(施)(诽)(谤)(犯)(罪)(适)(用)(公)(诉)(程)(序)(的)(条)(件)(,利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(实)(施)(寻)(衅)(滋)(事)(、敲)(诈)(勒)(索)(、非)(法)(经)(营)(等)(犯)(罪)(的)(认)(定)(,严)(厉)(打)(击)(信)(息)(网)(络)(共)(同)(犯)(罪)(等)(8个)(方)(面)(问)(题)(进)(行)(了)(明)(确)(规)(定)(。司)(法)(解)(释)(将)(于)(2013年)(9月)(10日)(起)(施)(行)(。  近)(年)(来)(,利)(用)(网)(络)(实)(施)(违)(法)(犯)(罪)(活)(动)(的)(现)(象)(在)(中)(国)(社)(会)(日)(渐)(增)(多)(。警)(方)(近)(期)(查)(办)(并)(公)(布)(的)(案)(件)(中)(,就)(有)(号)(称)(“谣)(翻)(中)(国)(”的)(“秦)(火)(火)(”、借)(维)(权)(敛)(财)(的)(周)(禄)(宝)(、泄)(私)(愤)(造)(谣)(的)(傅)(学)(胜)(,以)(及)(自)(建)(网)(站)(敲)(诈)(勒)(索)(的)(仲)(伟)(等)(。  “由)(于)(网)(络)(具)(有)(公)(共)(性)(、匿)(名)(性)(、便)(捷)(性)(等)(特)(点)(,一)(些)(不)(法)(分)(子)(将)(其)(作)(为)(新)(的)(犯)(罪)(平)(台)(。”最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(新)(闻)(发)(言)(人)(孙)(军)(工)(说)(,出)(台)(司)(法)(解)(释)(的)(目)(的)(是)(结)(合)(新)(型)(犯)(罪)(的)(特)(点)(,对)(刑)(法)(相)(关)(条)(文)(的)(法)(律)(适)(用)(依)(法)(进)(行)(解)(释)(,为)(在)(司)(法)(实)(践)(中)(准)(确)(惩)(治)(相)(关)(犯)(罪)(提)(供)(明)(确)(的)(依)(据)(。  中)(国)(刑)(法)(规)(定)(,以)(暴)(力)(或)(者)(其)(他)(方)(法)(公)(然)(侮)(辱)(他)(人)(或)(者)(捏)(造)(事)(实)(诽)(谤)(他)(人)(,情)(节)(严)(重)(的)(,构)(成)(侮)(辱)(罪)(或)(诽)(谤)(罪)(。此)(次)(出)(台)(的)(司)(法)(解)(释)(对)(利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(诽)(谤)(他)(人)(构)(成)(诽)(谤)(罪)(的)(两)(个)(要)(件)(“捏)(造)(事)(实)(诽)(谤)(他)(人)(”“情)(节)(严)(重)(”分)(别)(予)(以)(了)(规)(定)(。  中)(国)(人)(民)(大)(学)(刑)(事)(法)(律)(科)(学)(研)(究)(中)(心)(副)(主)(任)(谢)(望)(原)(教)(授)(认)(为)(,公)(民)(享)(有)(言)(论)(自)(由)(,但)(并)(不)(意)(味)(着)(可)(以)(随)(心)(所)(欲)(地)(发)(表)(任)(何)(不)(负)(责)(任)(的)(言)(论)(,正)(因)(为)(如)(此)(,绝)(大)(多)(数)(国)(家)(刑)(法)(均)(规)(定)(有)(诽)(谤)(罪)(。  谢)(望)(原)(说)(,中)(国)(刑)(法)(规)(定)(的)(诽)(谤)(罪)(一)(个)(显)(著)(特)(点)(是)(,只)(有)(“情)(节)(严)(重)(”的)(诽)(谤)(行)(为)(才)(构)(成)(诽)(谤)(罪)(,而)(一)(般)(的)(诽)(谤)(行)(为)(只)(能)(作)(为)(民)(事)(侵)(权)(或)(行)(政)(违)(法)(行)(为)(处)(理)(。  长)(期)(以)(来)(,何)(谓)(“情)(节)(严)(重)(”一)(直)(是)(诽)(谤)(罪)(认)(定)(中)(的)(一)(大)(难)(题)(。“现)(在)(,司)(法)(解)(释)(予)(以)(了)(明)(确)(。这)(就)(意)(味)(着)(凡)(是)(利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(恶)(意)(发)(表)(诽)(谤)(他)(人)(信)(息)(,达)(到)(标)(准)(之)(一)(的)(,行)(为)(人)(必)(须)(承)(担)(相)(应)(刑)(事)(责)(任)(。”谢)(望)(原)(说)(。  根)(据)(司)(法)(解)(释)(,“同)(一)(诽)(谤)(信)(息)(实)(际)(被)(点)(击)(、浏)(览)(次)(数)(达)(到)(5000次)(以)(上)(,或)(者)(被)(转)(发)(次)(数)(达)(到)(500次)(以)(上)(的)(”等)(几)(种)(情)(形)(之)(一)(,应)(当)(被)(认)(定)(“情)(节)(严)(重)(”。但)(孙)(军)(工)(同)(时)(表)(示)(,若)(行)(为)(人)(不)(明)(知)(是)(他)(人)(捏)(造)(的)(虚)(假)(事)(实)(而)(在)(信)(息)(网)(络)(上)(发)(布)(、转)(发)(的)(,即)(使)(对)(被)(害)(人)(的)(名)(誉)(造)(成)(了)(一)(定)(的)(损)(害)(,也)(不)(构)(成)(诽)(谤)(罪)(。  孙)(军)(工)(说)(,司)(法)(解)(释)(对)(利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(实)(施)(诽)(谤)(行)(为)(构)(成)(诽)(谤)(罪)(的)(标)(准)(,规)(定)(了)(较)(为)(严)(格)(的)(“门)(槛)(”,但)(不)(符)(合)(其)(中)(规)(定)(的)(“情)(节)(严)(重)(”情)(形)(的)(,不)(能)(认)(定)(为)(诽)(谤)(罪)(,这)(体)(现)(了)(在)(依)(法)(、准)(确)(打)(击)(利)(用)(信)(息)(网)(络)(实)(施)(诽)(谤)(犯)(罪)(的)(同)(时)(,最)(大)(限)(度)(保)(护)(网)(民)(表)(达)(权)(,最)(大)(限)(度)(体)(现)(教)(育)(、引)(导)(为)(主)(的)(精)(神)(。  按)(照)(中)(国)(刑)(法)(规)(定)(,诽)(谤)(罪)(除)(“严)(重)(危)(害)(社)(会)(秩)(序)(和)(国)(家)(利)(益)(的)(”情)(形)(外)(,属)(于)(“告)(诉)(才)(处)(理)(”的)(案)(件)(,即)(自)(诉)(案)(件)(,但)(“严)(重)(危)(害)(社)(会)(秩)(序)(和)(国)(家)(利)(益)(的)(”除)(外)(。  为)(了)(准)(确)(界)(定)(“严)(重)(危)(害)(社)(会)(秩)(序)(和)(国)(家)(利)(益)(”的)(情)(形)(,正)(确)(适)(用)(公)(诉)(程)(序)(,司)(法)(解)(释)(列)(举)(了)(可)(认)(定)(为)(诽)(谤)(犯)(罪)(“严)(重)(危)(害)(社)(会)(秩)(序)(和)(国)(家)(利)(益)(”的)(7种)(情)(形)(,分)(别)(为)(“引)(发)(群)(体)(性)(事)(件)(的)(”“引)(发)(公)(共)(秩)(序)(混)(乱)(的)(”“引)(发)(民)(族)(、宗)(教)(冲)(突)(的)(”等)(。  “司)(法)(解)(释)(对)(该)(问)(题)(作)(出)(了)(适)(当)(的)(规)(定)(,既)(保)(证)(了)(公)(民)(个)(人)(权)(利)(的)(自)(我)(行)(使)(,同)(时)(也)(保)(证)(国)(家)(刑)(事)(司)(法)(权)(的)(适)(度)(介)(入)(,使)(得)(刑)(事)(司)(法)(权)(能)(够)(作)(为)(最)(后)(的)(保)(障)(适)(时)(介)(入)(,维)(持)(信)(息)(网)(络)(秩)(序)(的)(健)(康)(发)(展)(。”中)(国)(青)(年)(政)(治)(学)(院)(副)(院)(长)(林)(维)(教)(授)(说)(。  在)(为)(诽)(谤)(罪)(划)(定)(标)(准)(的)(同)(时)(,孙)(军)(工)(特)(别)(针)(对)(当)(前)(人)(们)(利)(用)(互)(联)(网)(举)(报)(、揭)(发)(腐)(败)(的)(“网)(络)(反)(腐)(”行)(为)(进)(行)(了)(强)(调)(。  “"网)(络)(反)(腐)("、"微)(博)(反)(腐)(",对)(于)(反)(腐)(倡)(廉)(工)(作)(发)(挥)(了)(积)(极)(的)(作)(用)(。”孙)(军)(工)(说)(,广)(大)(网)(民)(通)(过)(网)(络)(检)(举)(、揭)(发)(他)(人)(违)(法)(违)(纪)(行)(为)(,有)(关)(部)(门)(应)(当)(认)(真)(对)(待)(,负)(责)(任)(地)(核)(实)(,及)(时)(公)(布)(调)(查)(结)(果)(。  孙)(军)(工)(强)(调)(:“即)(使)(检)(举)(、揭)(发)(的)(内)(容)(部)(分)(失)(实)(,只)(要)(不)(是)(故)(意)(捏)(造)(事)(实)(诽)(谤)(他)(人)(的)(,或)(者)(不)(属)(明)(知)(是)(捏)(造)(的)(损)(害)(他)(人)(名)(誉)(的)(事)(实)(而)(在)(信)(息)(网)(络)(上)(散)(布)(的)(,就)(不)(应)(以)(诽)(谤)(罪)(追)(究)(刑)(事)(责)(任)(。”  对)(此)(,谢)(望)(原)(也)(认)(为)(,对)(于)(那)(些)(出)(于)(维)(护)(国)(家)(或)(社)(会)(公)(共)(利)(益)(目)(的)(,提)(出)(监)(督)(、批)(评)(性)(意)(见)(的)(,切)(不)(可)(以)(诽)(谤)(罪)(论)(处)(。  针)(对)(网)(上)(散)(布)(谣)(言)(、起)(哄)(闹)(事)(的)(行)(为)(,司)(法)(解)(释)(规)(定)(可)(追)(究)(寻)(衅)(滋)(事)(罪)(。按)(照)(中)(国)(刑)(法)(规)(定)(,在)(公)(共)(场)(所)(起)(哄)(闹)(事)(,造)(成)(公)(共)(场)(所)(秩)(序)(严)(重)(混)(乱)(的)(,构)(成)(寻)(衅)(滋)(事)(罪)(。  中)(国)(政)(法)(大)(学)(刑)(事)(司)(法)(学)(院)(院)(长)(曲)(新)(久)(教)(授)(认)(为)(,现)(代)(社)(会)(已)(经)(进)(入)(信)(息)(社)(会)(,对)(“公)(共)(场)(所)(”概)(念)(做)(符)(合)(信)(息)(社)(会)(变)(化)(的)(解)(释)(是)(可)(以)(接)(受)(的)(,互)(联)(网)(各)(类)(网)(站)(、主)(页)(、留)(言)(板)(等)(网)(络)(空)(间)(具)(有)(“公)(共)(场)(所)(”属)(性)(。  此)(外)(,针)(对)(当)(前)(互)(联)(网)(上)(通)(过)(“发)(帖)(”或)(者)(“删)(帖)(”的)(形)(式)(,威)(胁)(要)(挟)(他)(人)(索)(取)(财)(物)(的)(行)(为)(,司)(法)(解)(释)(明)(确)(规)(定)(可)(以)(刑)(法)(规)(定)(的)(敲)(诈)(勒)(索)(罪)(定)(罪)(处)(罚)(;针)(对)(网)(络)(公)(关)(公)(司)(雇)(佣)(,以)(获)(取)(利)(益)(为)(目)(的)(,在)(互)(联)(网)(上)(集)(体)(炒)(作)(某)(个)(话)(题)(或)(人)(物)(,进)(而)(宣)(传)(、推)(销)(或)(攻)(击)(某)(些)(人)(或)(产)(品)(的)(行)(为)(,司)(法)(解)(释)(规)(定)(可)(认)(定)(非)(法)(经)(营)(罪)(。  “在)(司)(法)(实)(务)(中)(,只)(要)(司)(法)(机)(关)(严)(格)(按)(照)(相)(关)(规)(定)(执)(行)(,不)(枉)(不)(纵)(,就)(一)(定)(能)(够)(有)(效)(控)(制)(犯)(罪)(、净)(化)(网)(络)(环)(境)(,同)(时)(保)(障)(公)(民)(正)(当)(的)(言)(论)(自)(由)(等)(权)(利)(。”清)(华)(大)(学)(法)(学)(院)(教)(授)(周)(光)(权)(说)(。  作)(者)(:华)(春)(雨)(杨)(维)(汉)(陈)(菲)(
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